Colorado Bankruptcy Exemptions

You'll protect property in a Colorado bankruptcy using Colorado bankruptcy exemptions.

By , Attorney · University of the Pacific McGeorge School of Law

Colorado bankruptcy exemption laws protect property in bankruptcy and are essential to a fresh start. When you file, the Colorado bankruptcy exemptions will let you keep what you need to work and live. However, exemptions protect essential assets only, not unnecessary luxury goods.

To prevent a costly property loss, you'll want to understand the exemptions available under Colorado, and what happens to property you can't protect with an exemption. In this article, you'll also learn whether you've lived in Colorado long enough to use Colorado bankruptcy exemptions.

Using Exemptions When Filing for Bankruptcy in Colorado

Bankruptcy is a federal process that works the same way in every state. However, you'll use Colorado state laws known as "bankruptcy exemptions" and federal nonbankruptcy exemptions to protect your property. Federal bankruptcy exemptions aren't available in Colorado.

Colorado Bankruptcy Exemptions

Caution: The state exemptions have not been updated and should not be relied on but only used as a general guide. Some state exemption amounts could be higher, and your state could have changed the law by adding new or deleting old exemptions. Verify exemption availability through research or by consulting a local bankruptcy attorney.

Spouses filing jointly can double most exemptions.

Homestead Exemption

  • $250,000
  • $350,000 if dependent, spouse, or owner is over 60 and disabled.
  • sales proceeds exempt for two years
  • spouse or child of deceased owner qualifies for exemption
  • spouses cannot double

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 38-41-201, 203, 204, 207

Learn about using the homestead exemption in Colorado.

Motor Vehicle Exemption

  • $12,000
  • $25,000 for elderly or person with a disability (including dependent)

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-54-102(j)(l),(ll)

Learn about the motor vehicle exemption in Colorado.

Tools of Trade Exemption

  • $30,000 stock in trade, supplies, fixtures, maps, machines, tools, electronics, equipment, books, and business materials to if it is used in the debtor's primary occupation,
  • $10,000 if above is used in an occupation other than the debtor's primary one
  • $3,000 professional library
  • $50,000 livestock or other animals, tractors, farm implements, trucks used in agriculture, harvesting equipment, seed, and agricultural machinery (spouses cannot double)
  • National Guard members' military equipment

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-54-102(1)(g), (1)(h.5), (1)(k), (1)(i)

Wildcard Exemption


Personal Property Exemptions

  • $2,000 clothing
  • $3,000 household goods
  • $600 food and fuel
  • $2,500 jewelry
  • $2,000 family pictures and books
  • $2,500 bank accounts
  • burial site
  • exempt damaged property proceeds
  • personal recoveries
  • health aids

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-54-102(1)(a)-(f), (m), (n), (p), (r)

Retirement Accounts

  • ERISA-qualified benefits, including IRA's and Roth IRAs
  • pension of Veteran who served in armed conflict or war
  • public employees' pensions, defined contribution plans, and deferred compensation
  • local government pensions
  • police officer and firefighter pensions
  • more protections in "Federal Nonbankruptcy Exemptions" below

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-54-102(1)(h), (s); 13-54-104; 24-51-212; 24-54-111; 31-30.5-208

Federal law lets all filers keep tax-exempt retirement accounts in bankruptcy. These retirement accounts include 401(K)s, 403(b)s, profit-sharing and money purchase plans, SEP and SIMPLE IRAs, and traditional and Roth IRAs to $1,512,350 per person. (11 U.S.C. 522(b)(3)(C); (n); amounts valid for bankruptcy cases filed between April 1, 2022, and March 31, 2025.)

Available Federal Exemptions

Federal Nonbankruptcy Exemptions

Where to Find Statutes

Colorado Revised Statutes

Other Colorado Bankruptcy Exemptions

Below, you'll find more Colorado exemptions. However, it's not an exhaustive list. Also, as with all laws, exemption laws can change. Be sure to check for current amounts and read the statute for qualification requirements (we haven't included them here).

Colorado Public Benefits and Wage Exemptions

  • Crime victims' compensation ( Rev. Stat. § 13-54-102(1)(q).)
  • Disability benefits to $4,000 ( Rev. Stat. § 13-54-102(v).)
  • Earned income tax credit or refund ( Rev. Stat. § 13-54-102(1)(o).)
  • Public assistance ( Rev. Stat. § 26-2-131.)
  • Unemployment compensation ( Rev. Stat. § 8-80-103.)
  • 80% of earned but unpaid wages or 40 times the federal minimum wage ( Rev. Stat. § 13-54-104.)
  • Child support or domestic support obligation ( Rev. Stat. §§ 13-54-102(u); 13-54-102.5.)

Colorado Insurance Exemptions

  • Life insurance proceeds or annuity ( Rev. Stat. § 10-7-106.)
  • Group life insurance policy or proceeds ( Rev. Stat. § 10-7-205.)
  • Fraternal benefit society benefits ( Rev. Stat. § 10-14-403.)
  • Life insurance cash surrender value up to $250,000 ( Rev. Stat. § 13-54-102(1).)
  • Homeowners' insurance proceeds for one year after received ( Rev. Stat. § 38-41-209.)

Other Colorado Exemptions

  • Business partnership property ( Rev. Stat. § 7-60-125.)

How to Verify Available Exemptions in Colorado

Almost everyone who files for bankruptcy benefits from meeting with a bankruptcy lawyer. A local bankruptcy attorney will ensure a smooth and uneventful bankruptcy by complying with filing requirements and helping you protect all possible property.

What Are the Colorado Bankruptcy Exemption Timing Rules?

It's tempting to move to a state with significantly more generous bankruptcy exemptions when filing for bankruptcy. But it doesn't work that way. To prevent people from abusing the system, filers must live in the state for at least two years. Otherwise, they must use the previous state's exemptions. Here's how it works.

  • If you've made your permanent home (your "domicile") in your current state for at least two years, you can use the state's exemptions (or the federal exemptions if allowed).
  • If your domicile hasn't been in the same state for two years, the rules get more complicated, so prepare yourself. It sounds so strange we'll explain it in three different ways so that you know you didn't read it wrong. Here goes: You'll choose the state you lived in the longest during the 180 days immediately before the two years before filing.

Did you get that? If not, here's a way to figure it out. Count back two-and-a-half years. Then ask yourself where you lived the longest during the first six months of that two-and-a-half-year period.

Still confused? Let's try an example. Suppose you planned to file on January 1, 2022. Your two-and-a-half-year period would start July 1, 2019, and you'd qualify to use the exemptions of whichever state you resided in the most from July 1, 2019, through December 31, 2019. You wouldn't have to file your case there, but you'd use that state's exemptions. Hopefully, that helps!

Special Homestead Exemption Rules

The homestead exemption protects your ownership interest in your home. You'll need to read your state's homestead statute to determine the specifics, such as the amount of equity and acreage covered, whether the exemption protects a manufactured home, and if you need to file a homestead exemption with the county clerk. But in all states, the property must be your residence. Also, you'll need to comply with a federal timing law. Here's the rule:

You must live in the home for over 40 months before filing for bankruptcy. Otherwise, your homestead exemption is capped at $189,050 if you file on or after April 1, 2022 (the amount changes every three years). This cap won't apply if you bought your home with home sales proceeds from that state.

What Happens to Property You Can't Exempt in a Colorado Bankruptcy?

It will depend on the chapter you file. In Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you lose property not covered by an exemption. The bankruptcy trustee responsible for managing your case will sell the property for the benefit of your creditors.

In Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you can keep all your property. However, that luxury comes at a price. You'll pay your creditors the value of any property not covered by an exemption in your Chapter 13 repayment plan.

For example, say you own a car outright worth $3,000, and your state has a vehicle exemption of up to $5,000. Here's what would happen in each chapter.

  • Chapter 7 Bankruptcy. If you file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you will get to keep your car because the exemption would protect the equity fully. In the same example, if your vehicle were worth $15,000, the bankruptcy trustee would sell your vehicle, pay you $5,000 for the exemption, and distribute the rest to your unsecured creditors.
  • Chapter 13 Bankruptcy. In Chapter 13, you wouldn't need to pay extra to your creditors through your repayment plan. However, if the car were worth $15,000, you'd need to pay your creditors at least $10,000 (minus sales costs) through your plan.

Keep in mind that these examples don't take into account a vehicle loan. You'll find more information about protecting financed homes and cars in a Colorado bankruptcy below.

How Do You Protect a Financed Home or Car in a Colorado Bankruptcy?

Many wonder if they can wipe out a home mortgage or car loan and keep the property without paying for it. The simple answer is "No." If you still owe a balance on your mortgage or car loan, you must pay as agreed to prevent the lender from foreclosing or repossessing the property.

Why? Because when you purchased it, you gave the lender a property "lien." The lien created a secured debt, allowing the lender to take back the property if you don't pay as agreed, even in bankruptcy.

Protecting Financed Property in Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

Chapter 7 doesn't have a mechanism that will allow you to catch up on a mortgage or car payment over time. So, the mortgage or car payment must be current. You'll lose the property if you're behind on the payment and file for Chapter 7.

The lender will ask the bankruptcy court to allow the lender to proceed with foreclosure or repossession during the bankruptcy or wait until Chapter 7 ends.

A few more vehicle protection options exist in Chapter 7. Learn more about how to file for bankruptcy without losing a car.

Protecting Financed Property in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

You don't lose property in Chapter 13. However, before the bankruptcy judge approves or "confirms" your plan, you must prove you earn enough to make the monthly payment and pay the late payments by the end of the three- to five-year plan.

Some filers can pay less on financed property if they qualify to reduce an auto loan to the car's value or strip a junior mortgage, credit line, or lien from a home. Learn more about catching up on arrearages in Chapter 13 and how mortgages work in bankruptcy.

Navigating Your Bankruptcy Case

Bankruptcy is essentially a qualification process. The laws provide instructions for completing a 50- to 60-page bankruptcy petition, and because the rules apply to every case, you can't skip a step. We want to help you find the answers you need.

Below is the bankruptcy form for this topic and other resources we think you'll enjoy. For more easy-to-understand articles, go to TheBankruptcySite, or consider buying a self-help book like The New Bankruptcy by Attorney Cara O'Neill.

More Bankruptcy Information

Bankruptcy Forms and Document Checklist

Chapters 7 and 13 Bankruptcy Form List

Bankruptcy Document Checklist

You'll find fillable, downloadable bankruptcy forms on the U.S. Courts bankruptcy form webpage. The forms relating to this article topic include the following:

Schedule A/B: Property

Schedule C: The Property You Claim as Exempt

Statement of Intention for Individuals

More You Might Like

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Can I Use My Credit Card Before I File for Bankruptcy?

Should I Ignore a Debt Collector's Calls and Letters?

We wholeheartedly encourage research and learning, but online articles can't address all bankruptcy issues or the facts of your case. The best way to protect your assets in bankruptcy is by hiring a local bankruptcy lawyer.

Updated: December 18, 2023

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