Filing for bankruptcy works well to wipe out debt and lift the burden of financial stress off your shoulders. But it doesn't eliminate every type of bill. "Nondischargeable debts" are obligations that aren't erased in bankruptcy and include support obligations, newly-incurred tax bills, and student loans. To get the most out of bankruptcy, you'll want to know the following before you file:
But this is just one of the things you should know about bankruptcy. Try our quick ten-question bankruptcy quiz to learn more about how bankruptcy works while getting information that specifically addresses your case. It's a quick way to learn about issues you'll want to discuss with a bankruptcy lawyer.
The easiest way to explain nondischargeable debts is by showing you what you'll see on the bankruptcy court's discharge order. Have no fear—we've simplified the lists when possible.
The Chapter 7 bankruptcy discharge order lists the following nondischargeable debts:
The Chapter 13 bankruptcy discharge order is slightly different—it lists the following nondischargeable debts (you can wipe out a few more things in Chapter 13):
Bankruptcy law doesn't explain which bills can be erased in bankruptcy—it only lists nondischargeable debts. But because it's easier to wrap your head around the bills you can wipe out, we've listed the things you can almost always get rid of—your bankruptcy lawyer will help you identify any other dischargeable debts you might have.
In Chapters 7 and 13, you can eliminate:
If you file for Chapter 13, you can erase these debts, too:
One of the nice things about bankruptcy is that erasing dischargeable debt is automatic. The bankruptcy court will discharge your qualifying debts after you fulfill your chapter's bankruptcy requirements. What will happen to your nondischargeable debt will depend on the bankruptcy chapter you file.
In Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you'll pay your nondischargeable debt after the court removes the automatic stay that stops creditor collections. You'll likely owe the amount you owed before filing. However, you could owe less if the Chapter 7 trustee sold property and used the funds to pay "priority" debts, like support obligations and back taxes. Learn more about the Chapter 7 bankruptcy process.
If you choose Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you'll pay most nondischargeable debts in full in your plan. Typical exceptions include long-term obligations such as a house payment if you keep the house and student loans. Except for these two debts, most filers emerge from Chapter 13 debt-free.
Most people assume that they'll receive a list of the debts discharged at the end of their case. But that's not what happens. Instead, the bankruptcy court uses a more straightforward approach. The "Order of Discharge" form you'll receive by mail will list debts that don't go away in bankruptcy and won't reference any obligations listed in your bankruptcy paperwork at all.
So how does the order work?
After your case ends, if a creditor tries to collect a dischargeable debt, give the creditor the court location, case number, and discharge date listed at the top of the order. Creditors almost always stop calling because they know which debts get discharged and that continuing their collection attempts could result in a fine.
You'll find links to discharge orders in the "Bankruptcy Forms" box at the end of the article.
Wouldn't it be nice to stop with two lists and be done with it? Unfortunately, bankruptcy doesn't work that way. Every topic has a curveball or two that makes it difficult to apply simple commonsense, if not downright impossible. Because of that, it's best to retain a bankruptcy lawyer when possible.
Don't let these things take you by surprise.
You'll remain responsible for student loans in most situations. However, filers who can convince a bankruptcy judge that they'd never be able to repay their student loans can get them discharged. You'll find student loan discharge standards here—but keep in mind that as of January 2022, reports have surfaced suggesting that some courts are beginning to take a more liberal stance on private student loan debt.
Also, the court won't discharge other debts unless you meet legal requirements. For instance, discharging income taxes won't happen until a particular amount of time has elapsed, and other conditions are met.
Some debts get wiped out unless a creditor convinces the court that you should remain obligated to repay the debt. These debts arise from:
Presumptive fraud usually occurs when you use a credit card to purchase luxuries of more than $800 from a single creditor within 90 days of filing for bankruptcy. Presumptive fraud applies to cash advances of more than $1,100 taken from a single creditor within 70 days of filing, as well (figures are current for cases filed between April 1, 2022, and March 31, 2025).
The creditor would ask the court to find the debt nondischargeable using an adversarial proceeding in bankruptcy.
Bankruptcy is an unusual area of law because it's essentially a qualification process. The laws provide instructions for completing a 50- to 60-page bankruptcy petition, and because all rules apply in every case, you can't skip a step.
The forms and resources below will help you find more information. Also, you can use this list of Chapter 7 and 13 bankruptcy forms to see where this topic falls. And this handy bankruptcy document checklist will help you gather the things you'll need to complete the petition.
More Bankruptcy Information
We want to help you find the answers you need. Go to TheBankruptcySite for more easy-to-understand bankruptcy articles, or consider buying a self-help book like The New Bankruptcy by Attorney Cara O'Neill.
We wholeheartedly encourage research and learning, but online articles can't address all bankruptcy issues or the facts of your case. The best way to protect your assets in bankruptcy is by consulting with a local bankruptcy lawyer.
Updated April 25, 2022